Pronoun atau kata ganti adalah kata-kata yang digunakan untuk menggantikan orang atau benda.
Secara umum terdapat tiga jenis pronoun:
1. Personal Pronouns
2. Interrogative ronouns
3. Relative Pronouns
PERSONAL PRONOUNS (Kata ganti orang)
Subject Pronouns: I, You (S), You (P), We, They, He, She, It
Object Pronouns: Me, You, You, Us, Them, Him, Her, It
Possessive Adjective: My, Your, Your, Our, Their, His, Her, Its
Possessive Pronouns: Mine, Yours, Yours, Ours, His, Hers, Its
Reciprocal Pronoun: Myself, Yourself, Yourselves, Ourselves, Himself, Herself, Itself
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS (Kata ganti bentuk tanya)
Interrogative pronouns antara lain: WHO, WHOSE, WHOM, WHICH and WHAT.
Who, Whose, Whom refer to PERSON
Who said so? = Siapa yang bilang begitu? (menanyakan subjek)
Whose book is this? = Punya siapa buku ini? (menanyakan kepemilikan)
Whom do you love? = Siapa yang kamu cintai? (menanyakan objek)
Which refers to PERSONS or THINGS
Which of these boys will win the prize? = Siapa (yang mana) dari anak-anak lelaki ini yang akan memenangkan hadiah?
Which of these books do you like best? = Yang mana di antara buku-buku ini yang paling kamu suka?
What refers to ‘lower’ ANIMALS and THINGS
Q : What have you seen in the mountain? = Apa yang telah kamu lihat di gunung?
A : I have seen a tiger. = Aku telah melihat seekor harimau.
Q : What did he buy ? = Apa yang dia beli?
A : He bought a house. = Dia membeli sebuah rumah.
Note: All interrogative pronouns have the same form for the plural as for the singular.
RELATIVE PRONOUNS (Kata genti penghubung)
A Relative Pronouns represents a preceding word. (Relative pronouns mewakili kata yang mendahuluinya). This preceding word is called the Antecedent .
e.g. The man who is in the garden is my uncle.
In this sentence, the word “who” is a relative pronoun, because it represents the preceding word “man”. Therefore, “man” is the Antecedent of “who”.
The relative Pronouns are: WHO, WHOSE, WHOM, WHICH, THAT, and WHAT.
Who and whom refer to persons .
The man who came is a doctor.
The man whom you love is kind.
Whose refers both to persons and things.
The lady whose box is lost is her daughter.
The book whose cover is red is mine.
Which refers to lower animals and things.
That is often used for “who”, “whom” or “which” but never for “whose”.
The boy that (or who) won the prize is clever.
The man that (or whom) you saw is my brother.
This is the house that (or which) Chang bought.
What is equal to “that which” or “the thing which”?
It contains the meaning of both the relative pronoun and its antecedent.
I do not know what ( that which ) he bought.
I do not know what ( the thing which ) he bought.
Note: All relative pronouns have the singular and plural alike.